Enzyme Reaction Technology

1. Basic Principles

Enzymes are biological catalysts capable of efficiently catalyzing specific chemical reactions under mild conditions.

Enzymes will form enzyme-substrate complexes by binding with substrates, then catalyzes the reaction of substrates into products. The rate of enzyme reactions depends on many factors such as enzyme activity, substrate concentration, and reaction conditions such as pH and temperature. Enzyme reaction technology has the many advantageous:

• Efficiency and specificity: Enzymes exhibit high catalytic activity towards specific substrates, effectively enhancing reaction rates and yields.

• Mild conditions: Enzyme reactions typically occur under mild conditions, such as room temperature, atmospheric pressure, and neutral pH, resulting in minimal environmental impact.

• Reusable: Enzymes can be reused multiple times by immobilizing the enzymes, which significantly reducing production costs.

• Safety: Enzymes are biological catalysts, ensuring safety for human health and the environment.

2. Free Enzymes vs. Immobilized Enzymes

• Free Enzyme Reaction: In free enzyme reactions, enzymes exist in the form of free solution without binding to any carrier.

• Immobilized Enzyme Reaction: In immobilized enzyme reactions, enzymes are fixed or attached to a carrier, such as solid particles, gels, or membranes.

3. Advantages of Free Enzymes and Immobilized Enzymes

3.1 Stability:

• Free Enzyme: Enzymes in a free state are relatively less stable and susceptible to environmental factors such as temperature and pH.

• Immobilized Enzyme: Immobilized enzymes, being embedded in a carrier, exhibit greater stability against changes in environmental conditions, making them more suitable for operation in complex conditions.

3.2 Reusability:

• Free Enzyme: Free enzymes are often challenging to recover and reuse as they are difficult to separate them after the reaction.

• Immobilized Enzyme: Immobilized enzymes can be easily separated and recovered, allowing for repetitive use and contributing to cost reduction.

3.3 Catalytic Efficiency:

• Free Enzyme: In some cases, free enzymes may have higher catalytic efficiency for substrates because they can freely react with substrates in solution.

• Immobilized Enzyme: Immobilized enzymes might be slightly less efficient in catalysis, as their contact with substrates may be restricted by the carrier.

4. Typical Applications in Industrial Biotechnology

Starch liquefaction, Glucose saccharification, Oligofructose, Oligogalactose, allulose, Fructose (immobilized enzymes).